(an Architectural Study on its Impact to the Community and Environment)


By  : IGN. Tri Adiputra


The desire of Hindus in Lumajang and surrounding areas to make the temple had emerged since 1969. This desire seems to be intercepted with the wishes of a number of Hindu leaders in Bali, especially after Nuur Tirta (a pleading for holy water) from Bali directly to Petirtaan Watu Klosot at the foot of Mount Semeru relating to the great ceremony arranged Karya Ekadasa Rudra at Pura Agung Besakih. It ‘s considered to have some difficulties and felt in its journey, because the mileage of the Bali-Watu Kelosot which spent 9 -10 hours traveltime, It sometimes required that the Hindus were overnight in Lumajang. If it just took a rest, it’s certainly not too problematic because it could stay at the hotel around. unfortunely, They felt unsteady of their heart appearing when staying at the hotel while ngiring tirta recently petitioned by an act of devotion in Petirtaan Watu Kelosot. When they felt unethical when they stayed overnight with the holy water at the hotel, then this was the entry oint why Hindus insist and encourage to relialize their desire establishing a holy place in the vicinity of Mount Semeru.

The existance of Mandara Giri Temple at Senduro Village have a special impact to both of local community and its enviroment.  Althoght they originally had rebuffed, at lease they recieive a blessing at their economic sectors such as : traders food, costume accesories, books and souvenir and some sufficient hotel. For its environment,  the presence of Pura that stands on two hectares of land, not only picked the name Sinduro, Lumajang at the national level but it’s even capable of change the village spatial and arhitectural in better appearance because of turning the economy around the community toward to their prosperity.

  1. I.   PREFACE

1.1 Background

1. The Desire to Build the Hindus Temple

It’s not easy to realize the establishment of temples in the village of District Senduro, Lumajang, East Java. In Gastric east of Mount Semeru, almost for 20 years Hindus harbored their desire to build a temple shrine. The dreams that seem so difficult to realize. Instead of permitting, the establishment & donations weren’t automati- cally raised. It’s too long for the people who complacent Hindus and only with mebhakti (pray) at Sanggar Pemujon which exist in almost every village in the district Senduru, Lumajang Regency.

The desire of Hindus in Lumajang and surrounding areas to make the temple had emerged since 1969. This desire seems to be intercepted with the wishes of a number of Hindu leaders in Bali, especially after Nuur Tirta (a pleading for holy water) from Bali directly to Petirtaan Watu Klosot at the foot of Mount Semeru relating to the great ceremony arranged Karya Ekadasa Rudra at Pura Agung Besakih (the hull of the mountain Agung, Bali), March 1963. Some activities of Nuur Tirta ware reconducted in 1979 relating to the ceremony in the same place, even at the end of the ceremony, it was  performed ceremonies of mejauman to Petirtaan Watu Kelosot.

Since this even, it began the regular tradition of Nuur Tirta to Petirtaan Watu Klosot when there was a big ceremony at Pura Besakih and other celestial universe in Bali.  The region of Mount Semeru and holy water in Watu Kelosot are even more known by the Hindu people of Bali and beyond. At the previous whenever a large ceremony was held at Pura Besakih or Kahyangan Jagat Bali, Pandita or Sulinggih (the priest) had just done a ngaskara activity which means that’s only praying to Mount Semeru and pleade to Sang Hyang Shiva Pasupati (it’s believed in staying at the peak of Mount Semeru). Along with the awareness  and appreciation of the Hindus doctrine, also supported by technological advances in transportation system, Nuur Tirta to Mount Semeru was done directly.

Even this activity’s considered to have some difficulties and felt in its journey,  because the mileage of the Bali-Watu Kelosot which spent 9 -10 hours traveltime, It sometimes required that the Hindus were overnight in Lumajang. If it just took a rest, it’s certainly not too problematic because it could stay at the hotel around. unfortunely, They felt unsteady of their heart appearing when staying at the hotel while ngiring tirta recently petitioned by an act of devotion in Petirtaan Watu Kelosot. When they felt unethical when they stayed overnight with the holy water at the hotel, then this was the entry oint why Hindus insist and encourage to relialize their desire establishing a holy place in the vicinity of Mount Semeru.


2. The Temple Phylosophy of  Mandara Giri Construction

It’s not only technical issues, practical and ethical considerations in constructing the temple at the plateau of Mount Semeru, but it’s also based on the Lontar Tantu Pagelarang (translated by Dana Asmara, 1999).

According to the religious literature when the land of Java was not stable or it’s easily to be swayed, Betara Guru decreed  (ordered) the demigods cut off the top of the mountain Mahameru (In India) to Java. Edict was carried out by the demigods, the peak of the mountain Mahameru beheaded and flown to the island of Java. Throughout the trip on the Java island from West to East, the Peak Mount Mahameru and its parts scattered into 6 sections and grew into six mountain in Java. The six small mountains include: Mount Wilis, Mount Lawu, Mount Kampud, Mount Kawi and Mount Arjuno & Mount Kemukus.  While the largest part of Mount Mahameru changed to mount Semeru, Lumajang, the highest peak in the mountainous Tengger. Finally the land of Jawa became stable and no longer moving. At present day the hindus believe that the pleteau of Mount Semeru is a sacred place around Java Island, and the peak of Mount Semere is a holy palace of Sang Hyang Shiva Pasupati.

3. The Sequence of Constructing The Temple

The first step in constructing was the location permit of the proposed temple, but it was refused by the regent of Lumajang with the reason of : (i) the grounds were   narrow & (ii) close enough to the settlement of non Hindus. Local Muspika (deliberation district leaders) seemed offering Kertasari village as the location of the but it was rejected by the hindus because it’s the  lava path of Mount Semeru. Finally, the previous location of the temple in this area with the initial area of 25 X 60 meters, increasing to 25 X 65 meter was refiled anymore, and 3 years later, authorities issued a new permit and the temple began to be constructed.

1.2 The Research Problem

According to the background above, some question will issued as follows :

  1. what is the phylosophy and concept for the temple construction?
  2. what kind impacts are increased to the local community and its environment ?
  3. what part of the spatial systems are changed related to the temple of Mandara Giri  construction


2.1 Meaning of The Tempel of Mandiri 

      Giri Semeru Agung.

          The name of Mandara Giri is taken from the Phyolosophy on Hindus region related to Avatara (the supreme personality of Godhead who’s incarnated to the world which’s shaped of “something” to steady the truth agains evil). According to Srimad Bhagawatam (Prabupadha, 1982),  On  the  past  time of  Dwapara Yuga,


Picture 1

Churning the Ocean of Milk, Mandara Giri

was between the demigods and demons

(Resource : Prabupada, 1982)



once the demigods and demons desired to churn the ocean of milk in orther to extract the nectar, the only one tool was the Mandara Giri (Giri means mountain) as the churning rod. However,the remarkabel work required a gigantic resting ground or pivot for the huge mountain. Then the Lord incarnated Himself as a gigantic Tortoise (Kurma Avatara), swimming in the ocean of milk. When the demigods & also  demons rotated Mandara Giri on the back of Kurma Avatara (Tortoise) who’s swimming in the ocean of milk. When the demigod and demons rotated Mandara Giri on the back of Lord Kurma, He accepted the rolling of the mountain as a means of scratcing His body. To balance Mandara Giri when turning, the Lord, Himself appeared on its summit.

To rotate the huge mountain, it’s used two very big snakes called Ananta Boga and Basuki, each snake was held by demigods and the demon.

As an implemantation of the phylosophy above, Padmasana had been constructed as the main sacred building in the Pura complext. At the base, there is platform shaped a tortoise, it represent the Kurma and held tightly two big snakes represent Basuki and Ananta Boga.  The building of Padmasana looks like a triangle above the Kurma, it’s adopted from  the shape of Mandara mountain and the top is without a roof added by a “chair” which means that the seat is unlimited for the God because He had been held the peak in other to balace when turning. In the context with the temple of Mandara Giri Semeru Agung, Padmasana is dedecated to Sang Hyang Shiva Pasupati. It looks like picture 2 below


Picture 2

Padmasana, The Main Building Based on the Kurma Avatara ofPhyolosphy

Resource : Field Observation, 2010

The temple constructed in multi stages, after the bricks were purchased, Padma- sana was firstly built facing to the East, but it would not be never completed. Then it was moved slightly to the North (still facing to the East), it also couldn’t be completed,   Then there was pawisik (occult guide) that guided the commitee to exposed to the Southward. Finally, the development of current Padmasana can be finishedand Punia (donations) flow from inside and outside Bali.

Establishment of the temple increased smoothly after the troupe from Bali (among other were Jero Gede Batur Alitan, Cokorda Gede Agung Suyasa, Mangku Sueca of Besakih, 1989) when Nuur tirta (pleading holy water) from Mount Semeru met the original Hindus of Semeru  region.   The delegation of

Bali joined the development team of the local temple teams. Senduro development committee was formed an integrated one between Senduru and Bali.

The temple design was prepared  and  Punia/donation inflate increasingly along with the influx of the devotees (people of donors). To maintain an order & account- able organization, Parisada Lumajang then pointed to a number of devotees (people who are willing to sacrifice sincerity) as the Committee for Excavation & Development funds through the appointment letter No. Pura. 94/PHDI-LMJ/IV/1991.

When the initial time was given the task, the committee presented only Rp. 40 Millions. From voluntary fundraising,  then it’s collected Rp. 90 Millions. Until the present moment the total is spent Rp. 1.8 billions for the physical development & the surrounding Temple on extending area of almost 2 (two) hectares.

2.2 Tri Mandala Concept in Establishing

      Mandara Giri Semeru Agung Temple

          The whole buildings at Mandara Giri Semertu Agung Temple were designed following Tri Mandala concept.

1. Bhur Mandala (Outter Space)

At the outter space called Jaba Sisi is equieped by Apit Surang or Kori Agung (main gate) & double Peletasan (side gate) and the plaza or open space.  Bhur mandala   architecturally means that somebody who wants to enter the temple must prepare his or herself purifying his/her attitude,  speech and also custum, so the open space is a suitable place for it.

2. Bwah Mandala (the Middle Space)

At the middle space called jaba tengah is staked by : (i)  Bale, Bale Gong, a pavillion for traditional ochestra, (ii) Gedong Simpen for keeping the ritual equepment (iii) and Bale Kulkul (for information). There is also a sacred hall as a special kitchen or Paon and Bale Petandingan for preparing the offering when there is a ceremony.

3. Swah Mandala (Inner Space)

At the inner space or Jeroan, there are Bale Pesandekan, Bale Gajah, Bale Agung, Bale Paselang, Anglurah and Padmasana (as the president and central shrine).

The area slightly decreased, on the East side was built pasraman Sulinggih, (the pavillion for the Priest), Bale Simpen or equipment room, and two Bale  Pagibungan (eating together) and kitchen. On the South side stands Wantilan, a magnificent and spacious  building for mengemit or sleeping. The commitee also prepared for Parisada Secretariat Office and Library.


2.3 Some Rites after the Temple Stands.

a. Inaguration Ceremony

On March 8, 1992 (Redite Umanis Menail in the Balinese holy calender) led by 8 priests, Pemelaspas Alit or inaguration ceremony was held in Mandara Giri Semeru Agung.  The ceremony basically means mapulang sarwa sekar (pouring all building with many kind of flowers). It implayed that the status and function of all buildings turned into shrine/temple. Later in June-July 1992 was going to be a big ceremony called Pamungkah Agung, Ngenteg Linggih and Pujawali.

Throught decision No 07/Kep/V/PHDI-Bali/1992 and by taking attantion into the meeting results of related institutions, and all Hindus agencies (at Hall Mandapa Warmadewa Kesari, Besakih, March 11, 1992, Parisada Indonesia of Hindu Dharma Center inagurated the name, status and management or the Temple. It was defined such as : (i) Mandara Giri Semeru Agung temple become Pura Kahyangan Jagad (Hindu temple for all pilgrimers arround Indonesia) for worhiping to Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa/the God.

b. the First Pancawali Krama.

Strains of bell sounds, fragrant scent of flowers and incense spread everywhere. the noise of traditional orhestra rhythms sounded, seemed united in the heart of Hindus who thoughtfully in ritual procession. A group of female primary-school students seemed wigglely performing a ritual rejang dance, it supported a solemn atmosphere & surrender to the God.

The unique dressed dencers were approaximately less than 13 years old who   never had their mentruation  swiftly followed the rhythm of the gamelan that followed with it, namely the traditional music of Bali. The sacred dance was offered as a complete implementation of Pancawali Krama rites at Pura Mandara Giri Semeru Agung, District Sinduro, Lumajang, East Java Province.The ceremony was usually held every ten years in the Pura Besakih Bali, recorded for the first time held outside the Bali island after the Majapahit empire collapsed in the 15th century.

Large-scale activities countiuning with the work of Lebuh Gentuh and Pengusab- an had a special wish related to secure of universe and its contents, said Nyoman Astawa, one of ceremony organizers last several weekend. Prayers were offered by peoples with the bell sound, delivered by 14 Hindu priests, who specially came from eight districts and one city in Bali, they were joined by the local priest who come from various regions in Java

The rite procession appeared to run smoothly, sometimes was even almost hard to distinguish that the current ritual took place in the land of Java, it feeled generally like the situation in the Pura-Pura in Bali. The village cool temperature in the eastern side of Mount Semeru, as if it turned into a sea of people, each wearing a distinctive dress and white colour was dominated.They come from all over the country to perform prayer and praying together, beseeching presented to the Almighty of God for always sow the seeds of holiness, righteousness, prosperity for the whole soul of the nation of Indonesia.

The special religious ceremony riligius was a major rite including the full rotation cycle of landscape, from the upstream, middle to downstream. With hopes of negative forces, dark or destructive could be controlled & neutralized into a beneficial force for human life. Efforts were in the condition and current situation was very relevant to the efforts and hard work of the Indonesian nation, to get out of a prolonged multidimentional       crisis, including the reform in all sectors.

The series of ritual activities that took place nearly a month, from June 7 to July 3, 2004 had a great significance in the historical dimension, religious, spiritual, sociological and ecological item. The rite implemantion of Pancawali Krama attanded by thousand of Hindu pilgrimers/pemedeg from all region in Indonesia had set up  Lumajang Region more famous as a religious area for the Hindus in Java island.


2.4 Some Impacts of The Temple

      Attendance upon the Community.

Now the temple’s presence is felt even providing windfall for locals. Food stalls for selling T-shirts bearing the Great and various souvenirs of Semeru temple are also developing in another case. Likewise, residents in the vicinity of Temple began  providing rooms to stay for Hindus who come to pray to the temple. Even the inn is also in the vicinity of temples by the local population. Everyday there are only Hindus who pray to Pura Mandara Giri Sumeru Agung, moreover on holy days such as Purnama/fullmoon, Tilem/dark moon, Saraswati, Pagerwesi, Galungan and Kuningan holy day.

1. Local Inn.

Attendance of  Mandara Giri temple is very useful for local community. Although They originally had rebuffed-hue on the construction. The temple that has five original monks, it’s felt to give a blessing to local community. Whenever there is a rite, The Hindus pilgrimers who pray, they have to stay overnight for some days at Sinduro village. Bacause of a great number of Hindus, so it’s a very good economical chance for the community.

The local people  of Senduro provide services through the stalls and food and lodging. Streets in front of the temple was transformed into Senggol market filled with various merchandise needs for the pilgrimer pemedeg. Ranging from snacks, drinks, food to t-shirts bearing the Pura Mandara Giri. on the contrary, secondhand clothes (import) are also available.

Pemedeg who have come before the peak day, many use any services of surrounding community. They rented a few rooms of houses for one or two days. The impact was related with their own home. the previous condition (spatial & architectural system) such as the picture below :


Picture 3

Haji Sabirin’s  Previous Home next to the Temple before the Temple’s Constructed

Resource : Fiel Observation, 2009


The previous home had a function of supporting the biological needs only for the owner (sleeping, bathing, cooking & eating) in a simple design of home. The house was a Javanese vernacular architecture marked by its shape and layout, as picture  3 and 4 (up and side).



Picture 4

Haji Sabirin’s Previous Home

Lay Out Plan

Resource :

Field Observation, 2009

The communities around the temple also had a samilar condition, so their will will help the pilgrimers a simple place to take a rest,  sleep, bathe and eat. Formerly they gave all their children’s bed room eventhough their own master bed room to the pilgrimers. They also prepared food and all pilgrimers’ need (hot water & dringking) with  simple facilities.

They treat the pilgrim such as his own family members, it can be proved by their attitude of preparing their bad master room and giving respectfully to the pilgrim  and they instead fled to the rear with a tent at back yard of their house.

According to Szokolay (2003), in his research in America, the human being attitude regarding to privacy associated with a bedroom is very private and nobody can be invaded its existence. In the context within the phenomenon at Sinduro village, related to the attitude of local residents who are willing to give up all their bedrooms to the pilgrim are an opposites one and of course the Atman’s theory above does not apply in the village Senduro. Because the Atman’s theory of behavior in architecture (the case in America) does not tolerate the use of private space for public facilities and an economic value/rental. Essentially the child’s bedroom & master bed room will not be used by others. The owner’s prefer to rent rooms in other places than their own rooms are used by others. The opposite phenomenon at Senduro village (letting the bedroom used by the others) is not for economic reasons, but the eastern attitude of more benevolence in sacrificing for the others.

As the compensation from the pilgrim upon the home owners, they just gave money that it can not be pegged to the amount due the owner just stated willingness pemedek in providing money for services and the accommodation. So the transaction system is purely familial. It seems that the phenomenon of the arrival of an improved and regular pemedeg each year related to the status of Pura Mandara Giri Semeru Agung, gradually making the shift of the local community response to the “business” with the principles continue to provide family services on one hand and began to take a personal interest in biological needs. In Case Haji Sabirin’s house which was originally only a two-bedroom, it is gradually increased until up now they has 8 bedrooms. The building originally was developed to the right and left sides that are still vacant land, equipped with only 2 bathrooms and car parking. While the back yard let opening  as a reserve space if one day there is Pujawali or rite and all the room full book, so this space can use for their residence during the ceremony takes place.The development of their home to be like:


Picture 5 & 6

Haji Sabirin’s  Current Home

(Front Shape and Lay Out Plan)

 next to the Temple after the Temple’s Constructed 

Resource : Field Observation, 2010

As a vernacular achitecture, changing  of the Haji Sabirin’s house into Inn definitly don’t follow the requirements of Inn or Motel some house fitures proved the argument, such as : (i) the interior design lets the incect come into the room,  (ii) the lavatory and electricity equipment are some time out of orther or eventhough there is not exist (such as : the wastafel of the plug),  (iii) the ratio of the  lavatory numbers and the room capasity wihich means that the lavatory is not inside the room or shared lavatory. Beside that, in modern era, it’s difficult enough charging our celular or Hand phone because there is no plug availabel at each the room. Futhermore in reducing the climate effect, the owners seldom try to avoid the wider window and use the cool resistant   material for the floor.

Anyhow, the presence of local Inn, it’s very helfull for the pilgrimers who have to stay overnight at Sinduro. The pilgrimers don’t bother to find out an accomodation (for taking a rest/sleeping, urinate and deficate).

As a logical consequent the ownes, room rates are quite different, per night room charge is only an average of Rp.20,000, -. for bathing purposes only, the pilgrimers are charged Rp. 1000 to Rp. 2000.



2. The Local Restaurant

Pilgramers who come to get praying to Pura Mandara Giri are also giving a food chance business. As a matter of fack, a lot of numbers and their’ attandace frequency all the year have an impact to local people’s home spatial change. At the beginning, pilgrimers only took a night for having a rest and they fed from lungsuran (foods that have been offering  to demigos) that, but they stayed at Senduro village not for one or two days, so their food need were not be fulfilling by lungsuran only. The local people who their home rented for resting, at the beginning they offered what they had and Pilgrimers recieved very excited, after the praying  done, Pilgrimes gave the local people some money without any sense of deficiency or excess, for both parties.

Haji Daroko is a local people (his home position’s directly accross the temple). He previously served an accomudation and also food what he had to Pilgrimers. The situation goes on annualy and a lot of pilgrimes number have come by so his guess and dinning room were changed into local restaurant (these are generally use as a place for having lunch or dinner).

Haji  Daroko’s local restaurant characteristic is a mix function between the dwelling place function (previous function) and an additional function of non capatalism business as a local restaurant (mix function) that provides some food according to Hindu religion doctrine.


Of course, the arrangement of local restaurants are grown naturally without any design principles based on restaurants that were  recommended  by  the  PHRI.  Some features of vernacular architecture at a local restaurant owned by Haji Daroko among others are : (i) air circulation system or the aroma of cooking and smoking come into the dining area, causing the the restaurant area full of smoke and the smell of cooking, (ii) circulation of raw materials and various supporting materials directly are visibled by subscription, as a conveyed one through the restaurant area and (iii) the usage of public facilities such as pavement as part of an area restaurant.

The changed spatial can be seen at picture 7 & 8  below :




Picture 7 & 8

Haji  Daroko’s  Local Restaurant

Front Façade (above)

Resource : Field Obsevation, 2010



Picture 8

Haji Daroko’s Local Restaurant Lay Out Plan (Right Side)

Resource : Field Obsevation, 2010



Meanwhile, as a function of mixing architecture that joined a residential function (a function now), among others are shown by: (i) the join between the bathroom for the occupants and the pilgrimers, (ii) the activities of eating together at the restaurant area with a different menu between the occupant and the pilgrimers, (iii) the daily circulation  activities of residents also joined with the activity functions of the restaurant.

It seems that a combination of two building functions (restaurant & residential functions) with different peoples can take place in synchronous activity. This behavior phenomenon is quite unique condition that occurs at Pura Mandara Giri. On the one hand, homeowners do not feel awkward doing daily activities surrounded by some “strangers” who were eating at their restaurant, residents friendly and fully of smiles greet some “strangers” who visited. Residents consider the pilgrimers like their owned family members. While on the other hand, the pilgrimers as “foreigners”, there  is no other option to get food. They seem to understand and can accept a such state restaurant that joins with the residental function. They ignored some activities of residents in the area of the restaurant while they ate. This condition is an interesting phenomenon of the mutual simbiose benefit and mutual tolerance.

3. The  Other  Building (Souvenir/Handycraft Shop & Internet  Hut)

Outside of the building functions as a resident and dining, some living rooms or front yard houses were changed its function into some other functions that support the ritual activity at the Pura Mandara Giri.

It can’t  be denied that the pilgrimers are not only requiring accomodation, but they also need another items regading the ritual activities, so  local people provide the other items above, such as :


Picture 9

An Internet and A Cafe  Front Facade

Resource : Field Obsevation, 2010

 (i) souvenir shop, (ii) store the tools of prayer (iii) the snack shop, (iv) clothing and apparel prayer stores, (v) toiletries, (vi) internet cafes and cafes, (vii) mobile phone shop or cellular and pulse, and the last (viii) childrent’s store.

Eventhough when it is n’t rampant for the cellular phone, some living rooms or a local resident’s front yard serves as telecommunication hut,  as  an  allegory of the  mushrooms during the rainy season,

Eventhough, it’s found 3 companies

engaged in the vehicle leasing business But now all of these two forms of  a sudden business were  no longer exists. The rental car disappeared due to the pilgrimers from all over Indonesia, almost all using their own vehicle or bus, while the telecommunication huts ware replaced by Internet hut and cafe.




          Some conclussions can be taken from the discussion above, such as :

  1. Mandara Giri temple is taken from the Phyolosophy on Hindus region related to Kurma Avatara (the supreme personality of Godhead who’s incarnated to the world which’s shaped of “some- thing “to steady the truth agains evil). The design concept in establishing Mandara Giri Semeru Agung is tri mandala that consists of : (i) Bhur Mandala (outter space), (ii)  Bwah Mandala (middle space) and (iii) Swah Mandala (Inner Space).
  2. there are two kinds of impact, firstly the economical sector, the temple attandance is a gift because it has increased the economical local people’s  with the multi player effect and it aslo has a role to develop a steady economic life toward to the community’s prorperity and it can be said that temple attendance can craete a peace in Desa Senduro. The secondly is the impact of building and environment value toward to more proper than before the temple is exist.
  3. the guess room and front yard are the most part to be changed. It turned into a local restaurant, internet hut, a cafe, the custom shop or the celular counter. Basically the unique phenomenon is the building mix functions which means that the shared function between the owner’s daily activities versus the pilgrimers as the guess at the same building
  4. regarding to the dining area, in orther to avoid the fumes & aromatic cooking, it has better used a roof ventilation of alluminium material or using an hood, so the smoke could be set out of the dining room.
  5. the bathroom should be romoved from  the concentated are to every single bed room so it can increase its valeu and its price too.
  6. the electricity equipment should be completed with some electric  switchs  as a rational reason responding to the advance of era, technology & scientific.





Amiranti, Sri, 2004, Undestanding Housing Environment Psychology Dimension as an Residential  Satisfaction determinant, Regol, Journal of Architecture/ Environement Vol. 2 No. 3, Oktober, ITS, Surabaya

Santosa, Mas, 1997, The Transformation of Traditional Housing as the Basis of an Educational for Global Environmental Design, Presented Paper on MERA’ 97, International Conference on Environmental Behavior Studies for 21st Century, University of Tokyo, Japan.

Szokolay, SV, 2003,  An Introduction to Architectural Science : the Basis of Sustainable Design, Elseview/ Architecture Press, University of Oxford.

…………, 1999, Lontar Tantu Pagelarang, translated by Dana Asmara, Penerbit Sabha Sastra Bali, Denpasar

Prabhupada, Srila, Ac. Bhatisidanta, 1982, Avatara, the incarnated Supreme Personality of Godhead, The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, New Delhi.

Krier, Bob, 1983, The Element of Architec-ture, AD. Publishing, London.

Raporport, Amos, 1969, House, Form and Culture,  Prentice Hall International Inc, London

Sumardjito, 1995, Rumah Tinggal untuk Kos-Kosan di Lingkungan  Universitas UGM, Thesis S2 Arsitektur, Program Pascasarjana UGM, Yogyakarta.

Van Wouden, FAE, 1995, Clans, Myths and Authority of Social Structure in East Java, Graffity Press, Yogyakarta.

Dahlman C. and Nelson, RR, 1995, Social-Cultural absorption Capability in Settlement Development, in Koo and Perkins : Social Capability and Long Term Growth, Martin Press, New York






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  11. 5 Juni 2013 pukul 07:16

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